Agreement Line of Demarcation

The line was not strictly enforced – the Spaniards did not oppose the Portuguese expansion of Brazil via the meridian. However, Spain tried to stop the Portuguese advance into Asia by claiming that the meridian line goes around the world and divides the whole world into two halves and not just the Atlantic. Portugal pushed back and sought another papal proclamation that limited the demarcation line to the Atlantic. This was given by Pope Leo X, who was friends with Portugal and its discoveries, in 1514 in the bull Praecelsae devotionis. [17] The border established by the Treaty of Tordesillas prevented disputes between different European countries in search of new countries. Needless to say, however, the interests or opinions of the natives of these countries were never taken into account when they set lines or agreed on a treaty. Spain and Portugal divided the New World by drawing a north-south demarcation line in the Atlantic Ocean, about 100 miles (555 kilometers, or 345 miles) west of the Cape Verde Islands, off the coast of Northwest Africa, and then controlled by Portugal. The Treaty of Tordesillas, signed between Spain and Portugal, established one of the oldest and most historically important demarcation lines. The bull did not mention Portugal or its lands, so Portugal could not claim newly discovered land, even if they were east of the line. Another bull, Dudum siquidem, entitled Extension of Apostolic Scholarship and the Gift of India, dated September 25, 1493, gave all the continents and islands that were then part of India to Spain, albeit east of the line.

The Portuguese King John II. was not satisfied with this agreement, as he felt that it gave him far too little land and prevented him from achieving his goal of owning India. (By 1493, Portuguese explorers had only reached the east coast of Africa.) He began negotiations with King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain to move the line westward and allow him to claim the newly discovered lands east of the line. The treaty effectively thwarted the bulls of Alexander VI and was sanctioned by Pope Julius II in a new bull of 1506. The Treaty of Tordesillas established the demarcation line only in leagues from the Cape Verde Islands. He did not specify the line in degrees, nor did he identify the specific island or the length of his league. Instead, the treaty stipulated that these issues were to be settled through a joint trip that never took place. The number of degrees can be determined by a ratio of marine leagues to the degrees applied to the Earth regardless of their supposed size, or by a particular marine league applied to the actual size of the Earth by historian Henry Harrisse, called «our sphere» by historian Henry Harrisse. [19] The Treaty of Tordesillas (Portuguese: Tratado de Tordesilhas [tɾɐˈtaðu ðɨ tuɾðeˈziʎɐʃ]; [ Note 1] Spanish: Tratado de Tordesillas [tɾaˈtaðo ðe toɾðeˈsiʎas]), signed at Tordesillas, Spain on June 7, 1494, and authenticated at Setúbal, Portugal, divided newly discovered countries outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire and the Spanish Empire (Crown of Castile), along a meridian 370 miles[Note 2] west of the Cape Verde Islands off the west coast of Africa. This line of demarcation stretched roughly halfway between the islands of Cape Verde (already Portuguese) and the islands where Christopher Columbus entered on his first voyage (claimed for Castile and León), which were called in the Treaty Cipangu and Antilia (Cuba and Hispaniola). How could the world be different today if the Pope had never created the dividing line? all the lands discovered to the east if the line belonged to the Portuguese, the cut lands to the west of the line would belong to the Spaniards. The new World Night has not been found.

However, King John II of Portugal was not satisfied with this papal decree, as he believed that the papal bull affected Portugal`s rights to the land to be discovered in the New World. He also felt that the agreement did not give his country enough space in the seas for their travels in Africa. Thus, in the spring of 1494, the representatives of the two countries met in the Spanish city of Tordesillas to settle their differences. The two sides mutually agreed to move the line set by Pope Alexander VI a little further west of the existing line. The new demarcation line was moved to a position 370 miles west of the Cape Verde Islands. This gave Portugal better access to larger parts of South America, i.e. Brazil. Despite this change, Spain retained control over most of the New World.

This agreement was officially recognized with the bull Ea quae of January 24, 1506, which was sanctioned by Pope Julius II. The lands west of Quebec and west of a line that ran along the crest of the Allegheny Mountains became Indian (British) territory excluded from the colonies east of the line. What is the Treaty of Tordesillas? A treaty signed in 1494, the demarcation line was to extend from north to south across the Atlantic and the eastern part of South America. . This treaty gave Portugal control of its route around Africa and gave Spain rights over almost all of America. In 1492, the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the supposedly Asian countries in the western seas threatened the unstable relations between Portugal and Spain, which had struggled for many years to take possession of the colonial territories along the African coast. The King of Portugal claimed that the discovery was within the unlimited limits established in the papal bulls of 1455, 1456 and 1479. The King and Queen of Spain denied this and asked for a new papal bull on the subject.

The Spanish-born Pope Alexander VI, a native of Valencia and a friend of the King of Spain, responded with three 3rd century bulls. and on 4 May 1493, which were very favourable to Spain. The third of these bulls, Inter caetera, decreed that all the «west and south» lands of a pol-to-pole line 100 miles west and south of any of the islands of the Azores or the Cape Verde Islands should belong to Spain, although the region would remain intact under Christian rule from Christmas 1492. The Treaty of Zaragoza did not alter or clarify the demarcation line in the Treaty of Tordesillas, nor did it confirm Spain`s claim to equal hemispheres (180° each), so the two lines divided the Earth into unequal hemispheres. Portugal`s share was about 191°, while Spain`s was about 169°. Both sections have a high uncertainty of ±4° due to the large differences of opinion on the location of the Tordesillas line. The Treaty of Tordesillas of 1494 carefully divided the «New World» into lands, resources and peoples claimed by Spain and Portugal. The red vertical line that crosses eastern Brazil represents the gap. The treaty worked well for the Spanish and Portuguese empires, but less so for the 50 million people already living in established communities in America. The treaty was important for the division of Latin America and for the establishment of Spain in the Western Pacific. However, it quickly became obsolete in North America and later in Asia and Africa, where it influenced colonization. It was ignored by other European nations, and with the decline of Spanish and Portuguese power, the countries of origin were unable to hold many of their claims, let alone extend them into poorly studied areas.

Thus, with sufficient support, it has become possible for any European state to colonize open spaces, or those held weakly by Lisbon or Madrid. With the fall of Malacca to the Dutch, the VOC (Dutch East India Company) took control of Portuguese possessions in Indonesia and claimed Western New Guinea and Western Australia as New Holland. Eastern Australia remained in the Spanish half of the world until it was claimed by James Cook for Britain in 1770. The attitude towards the treaty of other governments was expressed by Francis I, who declared: «The sun shines for me as it does for others. I would very much like to see the Adam`s will clause that should deprive me of my share of the world. [46] What did the demarcation line dothe demarcation line divided by two countries demarcation line 1493treat the demarcation line tordesilla in gangrenous line of demarcation line synonymous demarcation line in one sentence the demarcation line is a «line» that divides the non-European world into two zones. Spain had trade and exploration rights in all countries west of the line, and Portugal had the same rights on the east side of the line. A demarcation is a line, boundary, or other conceptual separation between things. Geographically, a demarcation can be the border that separates two countries, or the river that separates two regions. The differentiation comes from the German word for brand.

Although the island of Santo Thome was not identified by the treaty, its «Islas de las Velas» (Islands of Sails) appear in a Spanish history of China from 1585, on Petrus Plancius` world map of 1594, on an anonymous map of the Moluccas in the London edition of Linschoten of 1598 and on Petro Kærio`s world map of 1607. identified as a north-south chain of islands in the Pacific Northwest, which at that time were also called «Islas de los Ladrones» (Thieves` Islands). [38] [39] [40] Its name was changed from Spain in 1667 to «Islas de las Marianas» (Mariana Islands), to which Guam belongs at its southern end. . . .

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